The largest of the early civilizations and one of the greatest urban civilization having almost 1.25 million km of land, covering Himalayas, Gulf of Cambay, Modern Pakistan, Afghanistan, parts of northwestern India and Iran; is the Indus Valley or the Harappan Civilization.
It was a Bronze Age civilization lasted from 1300 to 3300 BC and had a population of 5 million at their honeymoon period.
Since first excavation, archaeologists have found almost 1400 cities of Indus civilization.
Harappa and Moen-Jo-Daro were the two largest cities of this civilization which were the home to approx. 50,000 people.
Allahdino is the smallest site with an unfortified settlement of 1.4 hectare.
The ruins at Moen-Jo-Daro were declared UNESCO’s World Heritage Site in 1980.
It was not in human memory then in 1800s, Lahore-Multan railway-builders and archaeologists rediscovered it while digging for railway tracks. These ruins were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson.
Sir John Marshall and Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay
The Indus Valley civilization was bigger than Ancient Egypt.
Indus civilization got its name because it was on the bank of Indus and many of Indus’ rivers.
They were the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.
No-one can understand their writing yet.
Moen-Jo-Daro means ‘Mound of the Dead’.
Moen-Jo-Daro had as many as 3,000 houses.
1 in 3 homes at Moen-Jo-Daro had its own private well.
Some Indus city wells were 20m deep.
The High Mound at Moen-Jo-Daro is 18m high.
In the 1920s archaeologists found 39 skeletons at the city of Moen-Jo-Daro.
Charles Masson’s real name was James Lewis. He was a deserter (runaway) from the British Army.
People in the Indus Valley were baking bread in ovens at least 5,000 years ago.
They also made toys for children.
Red was one of the Indus people’s favorite colors.
The biggest Indus reservoir (man-made lake) was over 500m long.
Shells were sometimes used as cups.
They were the people with super IQ and far sightedness and built; drains, sewers and could grow wheat, barley and other cereals.
The list of their amazing stuffs is not going to end soon; built fortified citadels to store grains and defense and were also good at metallurgy, discovered tin, lead and copper and were also the best brick makers of the ancient world.
The “great bath” is without doubt the earliest public water tank in the ancient world, located in Moen-Jo-Daro.
It’s another remarkable thing about Indus civilization as it tells us much about them, their dressing, hair styles, mentality, gods etc but the most probable reason could be for documentation and sending an order from a place to other or may be or trade. We got almost 2,000 inscribed seals.
Who were the rulers of Indus cities? This is yet a mystery; one can just make a wild guess but can’t declare a certain result.
By 1500 BC the Indus Valley civilization was over but how? This is yet another mystery, whether it was a natural disaster or an invasion or people left it due to bad atmospheric change?